The Napoleonic Wars [Updated 030904]

Version 1.2 of the Living rules is now available at


Card Clarifications:

Designer's Notes:


Our apologies for the following errors generated in part by the rush to get the game into print in a timely manner. Along the way we just plain blew it. No excuses. Until we can issue a new version of the Living Rules, please make the following notations in your rules:

CAMPAIGN MANUAL; SAMPLE GAME TURN: What do the various symbols in front of the card names mean when the player hands are listed?
A. This was a font problem. The symbols equate to the number of CPs value of each listed card: the "+/-" symbol is a circled 6, the "infinity" symbol a circled 5, the "is not equal to" symbol a circled 2.


Round 4: Austria - Davout's interception from Prague to Linz is incorrectly reported as successful on a dice roll of 5. It would have required a dice roll of 6 or more. Dice roll + 3 (Davout's rating) + 1 (into a friendly space) - 1 (intercepting over a Pass) resulting in a modified 8, which is unsuccessful.

Page 15 - The paragraph following the Alternate History heading is missing a sentence at the end that returns the reader from the hypothetical to the situation at hand where Austria is indeed conquered.

PAGE 18 Q&A: Delete the second 13.3 Q&A pertaining to entry/exit of two-Zone Ports.

ABBREVIATED SEQUENCE OF PLAY: The REINFORCEMENTS paragraph in step 7 should read:

"REINFORCEMENTS: Reinforcement CPs are used to build Units, leaders and/or Squadrons, bring them out of the Regroup Box (7.7), Refit previously built Squadrons (7.3), or buy an extra Deployment (14.21). Reinforcement CPs may not be used to purchase Diplomatic status or attempt to end a Foreign War."


All corrections to the rulebook have been incorporated into Version 1.1 of the living rules which you can download in PDF format from the GMT website at (address to be provided when available).


THE NAPOLEONIC WARS was an ambitious project to develop because it was actually four games in one even before you take up the matter of scenarios. It was decided early to make the game equally playable by two, three, four or five players and this decision made the game immensely more difficult to present because each version varies subtly from the others. Had the game only been presented for a precise number of players, the rules could have been couched in more generic terms. As it is, to avoid presenting four different sets of rules for the four different versions, something I've always found difficult to keep straight, TNW uses very precise language to present rules that vary subtly between versions within one rules presentation. If you do not closely apply the definitions in the Glossary, you will have problems. By far, most questions about the rules stem from not applying the terminology as defined. Then too, TNW, offers an incredibly rich array of choices. After hundreds of games we are still discovering new ones.

All questions dealing with the first edition have been removed from this site as unnecessary - and, in some cases, contradictory with Version 1.1 of the rules. However, all known questions dealing with the event cards have been answered in table form in the card inventory below. New material since the last update is shown in red.


Each card is listed in numerical order so as to provide an inventory of the complete set and is identified by number and/or event name. Comments other than clarifications are identified as such. In most, but not all cases, CP values were assigned to balance the average perceived value of the event with its cost in terms of sacrificed CPs so as to make the decision to play it as an event or as CPs a difficult choice. The game situation tends to render such general rules moot, however, as under the right circumstances each event can be a game winner or totally meaningless at that point in time.

Obviously, brevity is important in selecting text for a card. We think the meanings are obvious in most cases but have answered all inquiries pertaining to the cards here for the sake of completeness.

Austria: Austria has 17 flags.
Britain: "Napoli" should be Naples. Britain has 17 flags.
Denmark: Denmark has 5 flags.
France: France may use any flag piece not currently in play by another nation but must return it if needed by that nation.
Ottoman Turks: Turkey has 7 flags.
Prussia: Prussia has 14 flags.
Russia: There are only seven leaders, not eight. The 8th was dropped for the Preemption marker and the card was never corrected. Russia has 15 flags.
Spain: Spain has 7 flags.
Sweden: Sweden has 5 flags.

Home Cards: (11)

While not needed for clarity, I have added "Comments" for some of the cards to give the beginning player a few clues as to their optimum use. Most of these will seem obvious to players with a few games under their belt, but may prove helpful to those first starting out.

A nation's Home card(s) forms the basic cornerstone of its strategy, since it is guaranteed to be returned fresh each Turn. But should one play them first or hold them to last? Your other cards can be stolen from your Hand, so that would seem to indicate that Home cards should be held till the Turn's end.

On the other hand, a Home card is worthless to you if the Turn ends with it still unspent. Decisions, decisions ... you could do worse than keeping the reminders on the back of each Home card always in mind. However, in the case of Neutral Proxies, the Home Card is indeed playable when directed by a player (6.21 & 8.32).

 Nation/CP Value/ + Event Name Clarifications & Comments
 Austria [6] +  Hussars &  Grenzers If this event is played in response to the flagging of an Austrian space to negate that flag, the CP spent for that purpose is not lost and may be used in some other fashion. However, it can only unflag the last flag placed. You cannot watch a string of French actions and then play this card to undo them all. The response will only undo the last action taken. Play of this event after the play of Turning Movement allows interception of that Army.
 Britain [6] +  Admiralty Comment: The basis for much of the British strategy in the early game; the option to trade one for two is a powerful incentive to control six sea Zones. Alas, the game can be cruel and yield only a pair of 2's for your efforts. Even so, because you do not have to immediately play one of the two cards drawn you can build a Hand to challenge French preemption.
 Britain [5] +  Parliament When played as an event the card can be given to any "Coalition nation" ... including Minors. Though given in the British Impulse, the receiver will have to wait until his own Impulse to play the card, although it can elect to hold onto it for later play, by playing a different card instead. However, if the Turn ends with the Parliament card still unplayed, the recipient loses it back to the British hand with no recompense. Once given away, Parliament is no longer considered a "+" card until returned to the British Hand and thus is not subject to the prohibition of playing two "+" cards in the same Impulse.
 Denmark [4]  Admiral Fischer The event can be played as a Response when attacked so as to give the Danish Fleet added capabilities on defense. Once played, the Danes would have to use the four Maneuvers before her attackers did anything else other than resolve the current battle or forfeit them. This allows the Danes to actually use four Maneuvers immediately even though it is not their Impulse - before the current Impulse continues.
 France [6] +  Guerre de Course Since play of this event is voluntary, Refit Squadrons cannot be used by the French to raid commerce. If the French move two Squadrons into the offmap box per this card, and the Brits send only one after them, the British IMMEDIATELY lose a randomly drawn card. They would still be subject to further card losses for any French Squadrons remaining there until the Interphase. Their Home cards, however, are never subject to loss even if the only cards they have remaining. In that case, the British player would not be subject to immediate card loss for failure to match the French Squadrons in the offmap box. Once committed to the offmap box, the British squadrons cannot be removed solely to satisfy the Squadron removal requirements of subsequently played Foreign Wars.
 France [5] +  Imperial Guard Neither Leader Wounded or Commander's Health would prevent play of this event since it is only Napoleon's presence that is required; not his health. Even if killed by Leader Wounded, he (and the Guard) is still present.
Resist the temptation to play it. As long as you hold the Guard, Napoleon is a threat to win any major battle.
 Ottoman Turks [5]  Janissaries Comment: The Turks can be either incredibly powerful or totally inept.
 Prussia [6] +  Raise the Landwehr It is the event - not the "+" aspect or the 6 CPs that cannot be used in 1805 (6.18).
 Russia [6] +  Holy Mother  Russia When this event is played to draw two new cards, one of them must be played immediately. However, because the event is also a "+" card, the Russian also has the option of playing yet a third card. Russian Winter cannot be voided by Persian War. While Subject Neutral or in the same Camp with her former conqueror, Russia can ignore Ceded Duchies controlled by that conqueror with respect to using the Holy
Mother Russia
 Spain [5]  Partisans Comment: As long as the Spanish hold this card, you campaign in Spain at your risk.
 Sweden [4]  Gott Mitt Uns Comment: Don't mess with the Swedes on their home turf.

DECK VALUES: The astute player will realize there are more 2 CP cards than 3's, more 3's than 4's, and so on. The actual numbers are: 20 '2's, 19 '3's, 18 '4's, 17 '5's, and 16 '6's. The average CP value is 3.89. However, as the game goes on, some of the higher value cards are discarded out of play so the average value actually declines in later turns.

Team member Stuart Tucker once made the statement that all the events are sucker plays and then proceeded to play the majority of his Hand as events. We've never let him forget it. But to be fair, a lot of effort went into making the event/CP decision a hard call by balancing the effects of an event with its average perceived value in CPs. The game situation can make any event a winner at the right time, but you will quickly come to your own realization as to which cards are played as events a majority of the time.

Most questions pertaining to events can be answered by applying rule 6.1: "An event prevails when contradicted by the normal rules of play. If two events contradict, the last one played prevails."


Event Name
 CP Value Comments & Clarifications


The Emperor Commands

Comment: The only "+" card which is not a Home card. As such, it has great surprise value in allowing multiple card plays for such purposes as purchase of Pact status on the Diplomatic Track. The ability to gain "+1" Key status is also huge - especially early in the game - since this benefit - unlike other Keys - is not subject to loss with the capture of a specific space. As such, it continues to provide insurance for an extra card draw in every Turn in which you are otherwise short one Key for the next card. It is also an extra VP at game end since VPs are based on the number of Keys by which you exceed your starting inventory.


Down with the Prince

This event may target ANY Associate Duchy (including Dual Associate Duchies) that includes the card player's color irrespective of control status, Camp status, or the presence of other Formations. Placing a Flag removes any other Flag present in the space. If that space is already the proper color, no actual Flag placement is required. Targeting a garrisoned Neutral Duchy does not trigger war or violate an Armistice (8.33). However, if the event player loses the ensuing battle, or a later battle, against Neutral Formations and is forced to retreat into another Neutral Duchy he must then either declare war or eliminate the offending Formations (11.43).


Descent from the Sea

The Unit placed is taken from your allowable builds force pool - not from elsewhere on the map. This event cannot be used in either scenario so long as France controls any Spanish space. This event cannot be used against a Duchy containing an enemy Squadron. Use of this event is not restricted by the Convoy rules; the Unit thus placed could continue to move by playing a + card in the same Impulse.


House of Rothschild

The card is reshuffled into the deck AFTER drawing two new cards and playing one of them. This means it can be drawn again that Turn, but not as one of the two cards drawn as a result of its initial play. The event cannot be played while you have preempt capability. If you preempt when you have one more card than another nation (thus losing preempt capability thereafter), you may not play House of Rothschild in that pre-emptive Impulse. You can play it in a later Impulse however. Just because you cannot preempt yourself does not mean you can play this event in your normal Impulse while having more cards than every other nation. The pre-empt restriction would not apply during the first round of the 1805 Turn, or while the Continental Systems Fails event is in play, or when no other nation has a card since no nation has preempt capability then.


Serbian Revolt

If the Turks already have their +1 CP marker in play, any Neutral build play by the Turks which leaves 1 CP unspent is used to attempt to end this Foreign War. A Foreign War has continuing effects. As long as this event is in effect it prohibits the play of other events that otherwise could be used to move Turkish Formations outside Turkey. The +1 modifier to attempts to end Turkish Foreign Wars caused by this event does not apply to attempts to end the Serbian Revolt.



Comment: If you have the discipline to hold it till the end, it's a better % solution for Extended Campaign.


 Minor Forces

This event may target ANY Associate Duchy (including Dual Associate Duchies) irrespective of control status, Camp status, or the presence of other Formations. The Formations placed must correctly match the targeted Duchy's color halves. Targeting a garrisoned Neutral Duchy does not trigger war or violate an Armistice (8.33). However, if the just placed Formations lose the ensuing battle, or a later battle, against Neutral Formations and are forced to retreat into another Neutral Duchy the owning player must then either declare war or eliminate the offending Formations (11.43). The targeted Duchy (if belonging to a Neutral nation) may also be subsequently flagged by the originally placed Formations (and only by these) without Declaration of War consequences (8.33). However, as long as the targeted Duchy in a Neutral nation remains uncontrolled the Neutral Power, typically Neutral Prussia in a 5-player game, can enter (including interception into) the originally targeted Duchy without declaring war.


 Steal a March

This event may even be used to preempt an announced preemption unless it would give the player two consecutive Impulses. Such a play must be made before the preempting player takes an action. This event can be played in conjunction with a "+" card to use more CPs or an additional event during the preemption.


General Staff 



Palace Intrigue

If this event is played and then randomly drawn from the victim's hand before it can be played for two CPs, the new recipient is not forced to play it as two CPs in his next Impulse and can instead play it as an event again at his convenience.


Great Redoubt

Siege: Can be used only by the defender in a Siege and only to limit the Siege to one round per Impulse.


Royal Largesse 

Comment: For those less inclined to be generous, the real value of this event is the chance to deprive someone (usually with a bad French accent) of a preemption opportunity or to change the dynamics of who will play last in a Turn.


Ireland Revolts

This event is discarded and does not constitute an ongoing Foreign War if there are NO enemy flags in Ireland because its effects are immediately fulfilled by placement of new French Forces in play. However, if there are enemy flags already in Ireland it becomes a Foreign War card where Units must be Regrouped instead of placing additional French Units/flags. It remains offboard with any units removed to the Foreign War card, the "regrouped" Unit/Leader(s) are immediately taken off the map and placed on the Foreign War card by the player whose Forces are Regrouped. There is no cost involved for doing so. This Foreign War is ended like any other - by paying a CP for that express purpose and rolling a '6' during an Impulse. British control of all Irish spaces does not end that Foreign War once it is declared as such, nor does rolling a '6' for the Foreign War ending clear any Irish spaces.
The event may not be played while Britain is a Subject Neutral and no Ceded Duchy would apply to its Foreign War effects.


Depot Captured

Regaining control of your own Capital or Fortress would qualify as "unflagging an enemy Capital or Fortress" for purposes of the bonus card draws. The two-card bonus is limited to once per Impulse ­ regardless of how many Capitals/Fortresses are flagged during that Impulse.


Cossacks or Azeris





The added Units may be in excess of the Commander's Command Rating even if it moved into the battle. However, after the battle those Units would again be subject to normal command limit restrictions. Being a Response card, the event could also be played AFTER seeing all battle dice for an additional pair of die rolls as a sort of reinforcement/reserve.

Siege: Can be used by both sides in a Siege and can be used to exceed the normal Army strength limit for a Siege attack.


The Weather Guage

Two of these Maneuvers can be expended as a CP to attempt intercepion of an Offboard Fleet.


Continental System Fails

The prohibition against preemption applies to all players regardless of Camp and continues from Turn to Turn until the conditions are met to discard the card. The event can be used as a response to cancel an announced preemption, but must do so before the preempting player reveals his card play.
Comment: Although the event cuts two ways, it is generally in the Coalition's interest to put this card in play because French preemption can cause a lot of problems. Since it is a red event playable by a neutral Proxy, Russia should waste no time in dispersing its Baltic fleet to help meet the conditions of its use. Naturally, the more Zones controlled beyond the required seven, the safer the investment in the play of the event.


Split Squadrons

The event can be used by either the Active or an inactive player. Being a Response card, it may be used after a successful interception or after an evasion regardless of the outcome. It could also be used as a form of free combat without any Patrol or interception attempt at all. It can be used only by a player with an involved Squadron.
Fighting part of a larger Fleet with this event cancels any intercept requirement on the part of the Active Player to fight the rest of that Fleet after the Split Squadron battle.



This card is played AFTER seeing the battle dice results. It is valid only at the moment it is played. You cannot play it after one round of battle and have it affect the second round also. However, you could play it after the second round of battle and have it affect the cumulative results of the two rounds.
Siege: Could be used to eliminate "5" results by a Fortress to allow a siege to continue.


The King's Shilling

Comment: A cheap way to ingratiate oneself with Parliament if you happen to be Russia or Austria. By giving up a '2' to the crown, you might just get a '5' in return.


Reverse Slopes


Fractional disrupt results are rounded down. One disrupt becomes 0, three disrupts become one, etc.

Siege: Could be used by either side in a Siege.



Siege: Could be used by either side in a Siege and could succeed before the Fortress gets to throw any dice.


March to the Guns


This event does not excuse the moving Formation from paying applicable Attrition penalties.
The Formation that joins the battle does not necessarily have to be your own but it does have to be involved in the war. This card can not be used to move a Neutral's Formation. If the Formation "marching to the guns" crosses appropriate terrain (11.22), the defender is entitled to that terrain bonus dice unless it did not control the battle space or failed an evasion attempt. A defender could claim terrain dice from the entrance of both the main attacker and a Formation "marching to the guns".

Siege: Could be used by either side in a Siege. The "marching" Formation could be used to exceed the normal Army strength limit for a Siege attack. If summoned by the Fortress, the arriving Formation would cancel the siege and cause a normal battle in that space.



The event can be played after any battle round where victory has been currently obtained and is voided only by play of Rally or Rear Guard events. However, after the Panic event is resolved, the results of the battle can still be changed by subsequent play of other Response events such as Rally or Imperial Guard.  Response events (6.14) are resolved as they are played.


Refuse Flanks

Siege: Can be used by the attacker in a Siege to halve "5" results by the Fortress.




Only "battle" cards played in the current round of the current Impulse can be used. The affected battle card only helps the opposing side now, it no longer aids its original player. Voltiguers (37) is only voided by this event, it does not add any battle dice for the player who played Outflanked!

Siege: Can be used by either side in a siege to the extent that the opposing event's benefits are applicable to it.


Horse Artillery

Siege: Can be used by either side in a siege. The number of extra dice earned is not determined until after the play of all battle cards by all players in the battle. Once the number of extra dice earned is rolled, it is not rerolled due to the play of Outflanked - whatever the original number of extra dice result was continues for its new owner.


Extended Campaign Season


Comment: Always the creator of great angst when someone's last card is an unknown ... and thus the rationale for holding Drought to the end if possible.

This event may be played in the same Impulse in which a "+" card has been played - even if the latter has unused CPs remaining.


To the Death


Siege: Can be used by either side in a siege

The new battle would not be subject to Terrain battle dice since no new movement into the Duchy occurred and the new battle is being fought in the same Duchy. Should an amphibiously assaulting force be required to fight a new battle To the Death it would lose the ability to retreat by sea since this is a new battle fought after the initial landing. If an evasion is voided by this event, it never occurred and therefore any resulting battle is not augmented by an extra die for a failed evasion. The new battle is resolved immediately, by the Formations currently in place without any further movement, interceptions or evasions.

This event cannot be played by the loser of a battle to continue the battle it just lost.


Lancers & Uhlans

The event is played after seeing battle dice results.


Anglo-American War



Commander's Health

When employed against an Army Group, subordinate Army commanders may not substitute for the stricken leader. The Commander remains the Commander, albeit one with no Battle rating. Nor it can be used to void the Nelson event which does not have a "Battle rating". It cannot be played after battle dice to subtract dice thrown.
Comment: The Nappy equalizer - best employed against an evading Napoleon whose evasion roll you have already seen and can guarantee fails after the fact by play of this event to void his leadership modification. Nappy would not get a reroll.  


Bravest of the Brave


The event can be played before or after the battle dice are thrown for an extra die, and if Ney's creation thus results in an extra hit to turn a battle ... well, maybe he was the "Bravest of the Brave".

Siege: Can be used to exceed the normal Army strength limit for a Siege attack. If used by the defender, it would cancel the siege and create a new battle in that space with the created leader.


Damn Good Ground


"Battle cards must specifically refer to naval action to be used (13.4)" This event is not usable in a naval battle. Fractional "6" results are rounded down. One "6" becomes 0, three "6's"s become one, etc.

Siege: Can be used by either side in a siege. Rounding down occurs instantly; thus 1.5 "6's" does not deafeat 1 "5 or 6".


Cuiraissers Charge

Comment: Can turn an indecisive battle into a bloodbath ... worth hanging onto if you anticipate a large Army Group battle.




The three extra battle dice are in addition to the normal two dice French Unit Bonus. The event is voided by Outflanked (27) without giving extra dice to the opposing side in the battle.

Siege: Can be used by either side in a siege. The assaulting force must meet the stated conditions; the defender need only be French.


Boarding Action

Comment: Like all naval cards, a strong reason to consider a strike vs Britain, but a bigger incentive for Coalition members to help the British. The wording specifically allows a land-locked Power to play the event for Britain. A strong British fleet is vital to the Coalition's chances.



The event cannot impact more than the last space entered before it was played. In other words, you can't watch an Army move four spaces and then declare that it has to suffer Attrition in all four. You can declare the Attrition effects in the space just entered, but that's it. If the Active player elects to continue moving the Army after that, it will continue to suffer Attrition in each space entered during the Impulse. If the Formation breaks into multiple parts or is reinforced, the event would continue to effect all Formations that were part of the affected Formation for the rest of the Impulse.


Anglo-Turkish War

"Patron" should read "Client". Britain must transfer another Formation to this event "whenever Neutral Turkey plays an odd-number of CPs for builds" even if Turkey already has its +1 CP marker in play or the Serbian Revolt is in play. Turkey does not use or lose the +1 CP marker while this event is in play since the odd CP is always spent fueling the requirement of the British to add another reinforcement instead.


Fog of War


If played in combination with Fleet in Irons, the cost of further patrols is doubled twice (i.e., quadrupled).

Comment: A Trafalgar-buster that makes massing for battle very dangerous.


Form Square

The event could be played after a Cavalry Raid's results to void those results, but it can void only the last set of results. For example, if Cavalry Raid is played for Attrition vs three spaces, it can be voided before any of those spaces are attacked by playing Form Square. However, if the Form Square player decides to see the outcome of those raids before playing his event, he can only void the most recent set (and any as yet unrolled) of Cavalry Raid results. Once the dice have been rolled for another space, the previous space's results are irreversible.


Overseas Allies

Comment: If you have Sultan's Ear, it may pay you to help the Russian end his Russo-Turkish War.


Fleet in Irons

If an evasion is voided by this event, it never occurred and therefore any resulting battle is not augmented by an extra die for a failed evasion. Comment: A Trafalgar-buster and/or insurance for a Guerre de Course play. Imperial possession of this card can play havoc with the British opening and setup a delayed invasion of Britain. 



When used vs a besieged Fortress by the besieger as his required card play for that Impulse, the Dysentery die roll replaces a normal siege attempt for that Impulse. If used as a Response card that does not fulfill the required card play of an Impulse, the Dysentery die roll is in essence a free Siege attempt, and if it fails could be followed by a normal siege attempt in the besiegers Impulse. If multiple nationalities are involved, the Commander chooses which are eliminated (6.17) and thus pre-determines which nationalities must roll the Attrition rolls with the +1 modifier.


Rear Guard

The event cannot void kills caused by "6" die rolls nor change the victor of a battle. It does not affect other battles occurring in or after the current Impulse.


Sappers & Pioneers

Always wait to see the outcome of a Siege attempt dice roll before playing this event.


Massed Grenadiers


Due to the wording of this event, this Response ends a battle outright - preventing play of further Response events such as Imperial Guard that could affect the outcome of the battle. In this case it pays to play fast rather than considering your options endlessly; see also 6.14 FAQ.

Siege: Of no use to the defender, this event can be used to win a tied battle round which would normally defeat a siege attempt.


Thin Red Line


When used vs a multi-national Army Group, this event would nullify as many "5" results as there are British Units in the battle. It is valid only at the moment it is played. You cannot play it after one round of battle and have it affect the next round also. However, you could play it after the second round of battle and have it affect the cumulative results of the two rounds.

Siege: A besieging force can void as many "5" results as it has British units.


Unguarded Approach

The event can be played after the Attrition rolls to void those rolls. It cannot be played after a battle to void Terrain battle dice rolls, nor can it be played to allow crossing a strait while an enemy Fleet is in that Zone or Port (11.22). If played to cross a Strait, it would void whatever dice that Duchy would normally have against Amphibious Assault (two or four).


Bey of Algiers

This event voids the Admiralty "event" - not the play of the Admiralty card's 6 CPs. The Admiralty card is still valid for all other purposes.  


Crown Prince Bernadotte

If Gustavus is outside Sweden when this event is played, Bernadotte and the Unit replace him there and then are Regrouped as Sweden becomes unaligned. If this event is voided by the Age of Metternich event or negated by immediate response (8.21), Bernadotte and the extra Swedish unit are not placed, but the Bernadotte card is not removed from play.


Royal Wedding






Papal Bull

Placing a Flag removes any other Flag present in the space. If that space is already the proper color, no actual Flag placement is required. The flag placed must be that of the nation playing the event. This event never results in war or violates an Armistice (8.33). The event cannot be used to break a Pact since that ability is not listed on the card. It couldn't be used to buy Pact status for a nation other than the one playing the event since it is spending CPs (8.1) - even though the CPs are granted by an event.


Platov's Cossacks

If Russia is [Subject] Neutral this event may not be played.


Up from the Ranks



 Bypass Stronghold

The only way to move from a Fortress space to a non-friendly space. To use this event, a Formation must actually exit an Enemy Fortress.


Cavalry Raids


This event may be used against any and all Forces of your choosing adjacent to any one Army opposing them of your choosing. Think of the Army you choose as the source of the Cavalry raids - free to attack any and all adjacent spaces. Should such a raid flag an adjacent space, the Flag is that of the adjacent Army which launched the raid - not necessarily the nation that played the card. If there are more than one adjacent Armies of different nationalities, the player of the event would select the nationality of the Flag from among those eligible. If the "inherent" Flag of an "Unoccupied enemy Duchy" (as opposed to a Flag marker) is eliminated by the Attrition of the Cavalry Raids, it is replaced by a Flag of the raider.

This event may not be used during a battle since the opposing Armies are not "adjacent".


Nationalist Uprisings


Actual Flags must be removed when using this event. You cannot play it against an "inherently flagged space" controlled only by the color of the space. If used after Napoleon Abdicates to turn a French Associate into an enemy-occupied Uncontrrolled space, that Associate would be subject to flagging by any survivor after the Attrition Phase (5.6) despite the prohibition of flagging caused by Napoleon Abdicates.

If this event leaves an already present Formation in a now Uncontrolled Duchy, the Formation may Flag the space OR end its turn there, take attrition (5.6), and then Flag the Duchy. Alternatively, the Formation may simply move away - leaving the space to be reclaimed by its original owner. There is no Declaration of War (8.33) and no War consequences in any case. Note that if the Formation moves away it may not Flag or end its turn (and then subsequently flag via attrition [5.6]) in a different Duchy unless it declares war.

While the placement of flags by an event is interceptable, the removal of flags is not.


Fire Ships

Already Refitting/Building Squadrons which are damaged or fouled by this event get multiple Refit or Build markers as appropriate. Only one Refit marker can be removed per Squadron per Impulse or Interphase. Only one Build marker can be removed per Squadron per Interphase. The result vs each Squadron is pre-designated as each die roll is made; i.e. the defender cannot assign the results of the entire attack after seeing all dice rolls as he can in a normal naval battle. The event's specific instructions to "Each blockaded Squadron in a Port of your choice rolls a die" takes precedence.


Council of War

Comment: The Mulligan-buster. Play the good stuff first and then ditch the rest with this event. No need to ever suffer a Mulligan penalty when you have this card.


Malet''s Conspiracy

Comment: Always the French first play. Get it out of your hand before it can be stolen and used against you. 


Call up the next Class

Lest there be any doubt, this event can be played to build and place units of another player's nation in that nation.





Europe Exhausted

Comment: Hold it to the end if you can. Why let the others know the game is more likely to end this Turn before you have to? If you're losing, try to end the Turn with this card left unplayed as a carryover till the next Turn. That's the only way, short of a Council of War, to avoid its effect.


Emigres & Exiles

The event cannot be played without actually placing a leader and a Unit in your friendly Capital. However, if lacking such pieces you may (6.12) eliminate them from elsewhere on the map to enable placement in the Capital. You may not eliminate pieces in play for such placement if there are other available pieces to place.


Polish Uprising

If Prussia is not at war with France, this event is not played by a neutral Proxy and is used as six CPs instead.


Dos de Mayo

Comment: Just as important as taking Spain out of the Imperial camp is the ability for a Coalition member to rein in a victorious Britain who has made big gains in Spain. Returning Spain to neutral, makes Britain gives back all those hard fought Spanish keys.



This event applies to all players - not just specific nations. Events (such as Papal Bull and Minor Forces) which place Forces in another nation's Duchy do not cause War or violate an Armistice.


Spithead & the Nore

Comment: Always the British first play. Get it out of your hand before it can be stolen and used against you.


 British Subsidies

Comment: Whenever Britain shows interest in Sweden this event is usually not far behind.


Russo-Turkish War

"Patron" should read "Client". The Unit draft reroll adds to the original Russian Units required during the Russian Reinforcement Phase (14.2).


Turning Movement 

This event cannot be used to move an Army Group - which is why it says "Army". The Army can be intercepted by subsequent play of Hussars and Grenzers. This event may not be used to move through an enemy Fortress.
Comment: Ferdinand beware. French possession of this card makes a Napoleon Forced March opening on Linz painless for him and dangerous for the Austrian. 


Letters of Marque

The Admiralty card is reflipped to its usable side at the start of the next Turn even if this Foreign War is still in effect.  


Treaty of Tilsit

The Coalition player in a two-player game may play the event from the British Hand and refuse it as the Russian. It does not require a separate player for each power to be used. Similarly, a Minor controlled by France could play it and France could still refuse it. This event does not restrict Pact or Camp allies from attacking the participants; it only prevents the French and Russians from attacking each other. If France and Russia are not currently at war with each other, this event may not be played. France and Russia are NOT required to play the event; they can choose to use the cards for CPs instead. However, if they offer the treaty as an event, they must abide by it if it is accepted. Any nation can play the event, but only France and Russia can agree to it. The duration of the "armistice" is only for the Impulse in which the card is played.
Comment: Since the event is usually declined, its real value in CPs is actually 6.


The Sultan's Ear





"Battle cards must specifically refer to naval action to be used (13.4)" . This event is not usable in a naval battle.

Siege: This event may be used against a besieging force. It has no effect vs a Fortress.


Leader Wounded

The felled leader cannot be replaced by another leader in that Army/Army Group during a current battle. The event may not be played after battle dice to subtract dice already rolled. However, it could be played after battle dice to possibly cause an additional casualty by killing the leader with a "6" die roll. If eliminated by a "6" result, the leader would count as a Casualty when determining the battle victor and rout conditions. Neither losing a "battle die" or one's "Battle Rating" affects a leader's Command Rating. Consequently an Army so afflicted can still intercept and evade, albeit without the aid of that leadership modifier.



Comment: Coalition control of this card should be maintained until Britain has the naval situation in hand. Austria and Russia should have no reluctance to play this event in 1805 to save Britain's fleet - despite their own pressing needs elsewhere. In fact, it should be an unwritten law that any player who plays this event for Britain should have claim to Parliament thereafter.


Napoleon Abdicates

Since this is a response event, it could be played after the results are known of a battle (but not a Leader Wounded event which kills Napoleon) where Napoleon is about to be lost anyway to return him free in the upcoming Interphase. The prohibition against attacks by or against France would prevent flagging of or movement into French-controlled spaces (including those of her Pact allies, whose Forces outside their own Home Spaces would also have to Regroup). Similarly, French Forces (including those of her pact Allies) may enter only their own Home Duchies for the remainder of the Turn. All French Squadrons (and those of her Pact Allies) must Regroup and remain there or in Port for the rest of the Turn. Note that other Imperial Powers not tied to France by Pact would not be so affected or protected. Abdication would not prevent the play of events such as Papal Bull. The event cannot be played if Napoleon is no longer in play. It can be played if Napoleon is in Regroup.


Scarce Forage

All leaders/Units of all sides everywhere on the map - including Neutrals - in excess of eight per space must Regroup. Put another way, up to eight Units/leaders in each space are unaffected. Note this event causes Formations to Regroup - not take losses. Therefore, the Formations which Regroup do not have to be evenly divided by nationality like battle or attrition losses. They are selected by the Commander instead.
Comment: The purpose of the card is two-fold ... to introduce some of the logistical drawbacks of forming huge Army Groups - making it less of a sure fire strategy. It is also intended to thin out neutral standing Armies which have grown too large while the war rages around them.


Double March

The Army must return to the map anytime during its next Impulse. It is not required to reurn at the start of the Impulse. CPs and/or an event could be expended first, and then the Army returned to the map to possibly move with any remaining CPs.


Foreign Aid

Comment: A strong anti-British event - especially in the hands of the Spanish.


Council of Dresden

Use your best and trade the rest - but do it before the neutrals (or your allies) run out of tradable cards because once that happens you can't use the event to trade with them any more. Likewise, you can't use the event once you no longer have a playable (random) card to trade. In short, you cannot just discard this card for a new draw - you must fulfill the terms of the trade to use the event.


Patriotic Fervor

This event can only be played once per Turn unless redrawn due to a deck reshuffle or stolen from the recipient's hand. It cannot be passed around from player to player as an event. Example: If Austria is given the event and still holds the card when it is Austria's Impulse, the die is rolled and the CPs thus gained are expended, the card thereafter being discarded. There is only a small chance to hold another card as a prerequisite for gifting the card in the first place is that the recipient has no other cards in its Hand. Thus, unless someone else also gives Austria a card prior to her next Impulse, rolling the CP die would be Austria's only available play. Even if an additional card were gifted to Austria in the interim, the Fervor card would still need to be played as the event requires that it be played in the next Impulse. The last sentence on the card pertains only to a situation where the card is "stolen" from the original recipient's Hand before it can be played. The card cannot be given to a nation that has an unplayable card remaining.


Corn Riots & Civic Unrest

The "Forces" withdrawn can indeed be Flags - but of the counter variety - not the inherent color of the space.
Comment: Relatively useless against France whose huge Army and large territorial holdings actually welcome the chance to build cheap Units from Regroup where needed. However, the card can be very tempting to use to attempt to extract submission against a small nation such as Spain which has been attritioned by high casualties.


Age of Metternich

Each purchase of a status box on the Diplomatic Track is a separate action. Play of this event eliminates all CPs spent for a particular box on the Track - usually a Pact space worth 5 CPs - not all 9 CPs if a player had purchased both Partner and Pact in the same Impulse. This event cancels all aspects of the Bernadotte event - not just those affecting the Diplomatic Track.


Persian War

This event does not affect the Ottoman Turks in any way. The Russian Home card is still usable as both 6 CPs and a + card while this war continues. It is only the Holy Mother Russia event portion of the card which is voided. Russian Winter cannot be voided by Persian war.


Russia Mobilizes


The six Units must be placed in one space.

Comment: In the 2- or 3-player game I would not hesitate to play this event as the British player. In the 5-player game, I suspect that would be a very rare play.



Q. ARMY GROUP STANDS: Why are there only eight plastic stands provided in a game with so many leaders?
A. While it is true that this game had been under development for many years, GMT and their production team became involved only at the 11th hour. Many changes had to be made to accommodate GMT's means of production and since these problems were not addressed until our turn in their production queue came up, this meant that many changes were made in a very short time. This is one of the features which was redone at the 11th hour as a result of feedback from GMT fans - many of whom voiced their dislike of standup leaders. In an attempt to please everybody, we added square counters for all leaders and cut the use of the stands to Army Group commanders. Since there are seldom more than eight Army Groups in play at one time, this seemed a sufficient number. The obvious visual distinction between the two also served to help distinguish Commanders from subordinate leaders. The solution was seen as a win-win situation. Those who prefer the standup leaders and want to use them all the time, regardless of their recommended use, are actually playing a House Rule - not the published rule. Nevertheless, if you want more stands, try Map Aid Products, stock number CIL 0603. Contact: The Cabil, PO Box 736, Hampstead NH 03841 email: A bag of 40 clear plastic stands sells for $5.

Q. ASSOCIATE: Exactly what is an Associate?
A. There are nine nations in the game: five major, four minor. There were obviously a lot more than nine nations in Europe in 1805. Think of Associates as the "minor minors" (Saxony, Bavaria, Swiss, Kingdom of Holland, Hannover, Poland, Portugal, Kingdom of Naples etc). In my War and Peace game I had counters for all of these and more. In a game of this scope, however, that became too complex and too restrictive, so we used the Associate concept.
Associates come in two varieties: 1. regular (white on top, color on bottom) and 2. special (two colors). The regular Associates are the minor states that were able to field small armies ...say a few thousand to 30,000 men - more in the case of Portugal, if you count militia, less if you count field troops. These armies rarely operated on their own. They were always part of something bigger. A good example is Portugal, where Britain builds. Another is Munich, where France's Bavarian allies came from, or Saxony, where the Prussian Army drew its Saxon troops. Some of these minor minors of course did fight on both sides. Thus, events like "Turncoats" and the idea that for every two keys you draw a card .. so if you are the French and own Leipzig you are half way to drawing another card, and you can use cards to build troops. That kind of takes care of their impact on the war. True, the French can't build in Leipzig, but they get a benefit for controlling it, and one that can be used to support their armies.
I could have made a lot of places double color Associates, but decided to keep just a few:
* Hannover is the home of the House of Hannover, which rules England. It is the home of the KGL (King's German Legion) which fought with great distinction for Britain - and when it was liberated the KGL officers and men to a man wanted to go home and raise a new Hannoverian Army but Wellington would not let them. Still, the British raised new troops there. It was a strong bone of contention between Britain and Prussia as to who would rule Hannover and how. This opens up a lot of possibilities.
* Holland/Dutch-Belgium is the whole group of two-tone places around Brussels. Besides being an independent country, a French republic, a Napoleonic kingdom, a French territory and finally independent again (and later it split apart), its two colors show its importance to Britain which based much of its strategy on the rule that NO continental power control the low countries as it would pose a real threat to the English. The weather and gales in that area made it important to keep those ports friendly to England.
* The Vendee was a hotbed of Royalist intrigue. Read Hornblower and the sequels to the Scarlet Pimpernel about the risings there. Again, a place that draws English attention.
* Poland which is covered well in the Campaign manual.
Could there have been more two-tones? Yeah, probably. I toyed with putting blue on the top in Leipzig, and gray on top of Munich, but that fell for simplicity and focus. Too many special places draws too much attention to too many areas. We went with the "less is more" theory most of the time.
Lastly, there are regions of nations treated as Associates. These areas, like Ireland, parts of the Balkans and Poland and much of the Rhine include both minor states, little principalities, semi-autonomous regions and just plain badlands subject to uprisings and accusations of being ruled by men of dubious parentage and conjectural progeny. There are some rules and a lot of events that affect "Associate Duchies" to reflect that.

Q. BRITISH VPs: Why doesn't Britain get VPs for controlling seas?
A. Introducing additional sources of VPs would just add more complexity and besides - Britain should control the seas. It's not like its a major achievement. She has more and better Squadrons. It would be a pretty dull game if all Britain had to do was sweep the seas. Moreover, she must control the seas to win anyway. Not only does it protect her shores from invasion, but it gives her more cards (Admiralty bonus) and great flexibility/maneuverability to strike for easy Keys cheaply where the defense is least imposing. The character of the British forces are that she can take Keys easily thanks to her navy. It is holding them with her small Army that is a problem. For that she must rely on her Coalition allies to do the heavy lifting and keep Nappy busy elsewhere.

Q. BRITISH VULNERABILITY: Doesn't Britain's reliance on her navy make her too brittle given the game system's unforgiving nature where the replacement of costly and time-consuming Squadrons is concerned? France can outbuild Britain easily in a ship building war.
A. It is true that when things go bad for Britain, they can go south in a hurry. However, in the average game I like their chances and prefer them over any nation, except possibly the French. While the French certainly have more CPs, I have yet to see them spent on building ships given anything approaching competent play by the Austrians and Russians. By the way, the French and their allies did build more hulls in this period than the British. Certainly CPs spent on building ships that are inferior to British Squadrons but cost the same must be considered cause for celebration in the Coalition camp whose Armies are on the other side of that cost/effectiveness ratio when facing French units. In truth, the French are probably most dangerous when they ignore distractions at sea - as did Napoleon most of the time - and concentrate their efforts where they have the greatest advantage - behind the business end of a French Army. There are exceptions to every rule, however, and a string of bad dice can doom any player. Yet, even the conquered can come back and win, in a long game. Of course, when you have bad dice AND poor cards, it can be a long game ... but the British hold no monopoly on that misfortune.

Q. CEDING DUCHIES: Why are there no guidelines for what Duchies to cede in a conquest? I understand that often in this period Napoleon followed up his conquest with the creation of minor principalities, but weren't these often based on the fait accompli of French military control on the ground?
A. Peace was always negotiated, even when victory on the battlefield was complete. The submission rules reflect that kind of "we'll give up if..." while the conquest die roll and the die roll to decide how much land is given up takes care of the rest... without bogging the game and the players down into endless diplomacy. It really cuts down on the whining, begging and arm-twisting. In this era it is as much a "what do I give you back when I leave" kind of peace so you won't fight me anymore as it is a "spoils of war" thing. Note that a conquest can actually result in giving back more spaces than you keep. That is the price you pay for a Turn of guaranteed peace and free passage of the country. As for the question about why flags can get placed all over the map: the various defeats of Austria, almost too many to mention, resulted in the creation of many small states. The fall of Prussia in 1806 produced more... so many little princelings were raised to kinglets, and client states like the Grand Duchy of Warsaw and others were created or, like the Republic of Venice and the lands of Saxony and Bavaria expanded at the expense of others. Napoleon redrew the map of Europe with the abandon of a modern day kid with a mapmaker program. At the same time, he had to let the crowned heads keep their core lands to guarantee peace... not that it worked, of course, but the concept of total war and total conquest was not something in the lexicon of Napoleonic era leaders. And then there was the occassional shuffling about based on whining sisters, pouty brothers and marshals who wanted their reward NOW ....not later. Just look at the titles of some of these guys... ...Berthier, Prince of Neuchatel, Duke of Valengin and Prince of Wagram. ..Murat, Grand Duke of Cleves and Berg (later King of Naples) ...Massena, Duke of Rivoli, Prince of Essling ....Augereau, Duke of Catiglione ...Bernadotte, Prince of Ponte-corvo (later Crown Prince and King of Sweden) ... Marmont, Duke of Ragusa ... Soult, Duke of Dalmatia and for a while virtual Viceroy of Andalusia and Estremadura, Lannes, count of Montebello ... Lefebre, Duke of Danzig. And the list goes on, with my favorite Ney, Prince of the Moskova. Some of these actually got title to and income from those lands, or briefly ruled them. For others it was more an honorary thing. And then, lest we forget da family.... not least of them Napoleon's brother Louis, King of Holland and Joseph, who bounced around the Germans until becoming King of Spain.. .and ended up a farmer in New Jersey.

With apologies for lifting the comments of a player verbatim, consider this explanation offered to the same question. Since it answers it better than I could, I'll just quote him. "Nappy crushes Austria once, sets up some minor potentates and secures a measure of legitimacy in some quarters. Nappy crushes Austria twice, wants to partition the empire and starts looking like a tyrannical megalomaniac. The point of the Nappy Wars wasn't the dismemberment of the great powers of the time. The 'keep-associates-for-free' rule helps to highlight this point. The Associates are Duchies which have their own aspirations (fueled by ideals of the French Revolution) apart from the 'imperial' desires of the ruling great power. They are very willing, in the short term, to accept the support of another power to retain a measure of independence from their former rulers. Home duchies are different, however, in that they have greater ties to the status quo and are hard to control politically when the war has stopped. With the exception of Venice, I don't believe any Home Duchy Keys of the five Player Powers came under the direct political control of another for any extended period of time during the Nappy Wars. Moral of the story: take the Associates."

Q. COUNTER SHAPES: Why did you use hexagonal shaped pieces for the flags?
A. The development team insisted on different shaped pieces for each type of component to aid in ease of recognition and reduce the problems caused by stacking. "Let's see ... is that an extra unit you have there or do you actually control the space?" By using hex shaped pieces, you can usually see the color of the nationality controlling the space on a protruding corner of the hex regardless of the square or round pieces atop it.

Q. DEPLOYMENT: A question regarding 14.21 - Free Deployment. There is a theoretical one Impulse limit for Convoys, but land deployments are unlimited. Was this intentional? Or should there be a one Impulse limit for land moves as well? It seems odd to allow Kutusov to go from France to Moscow to pick up troops and return to France all for free (assuming a valid path and all).
A. Keep in mind that the actual move of Kutuzov in your example is an abstract mechanism. Obviously, Kutuzov is not personally touring the entire map to pick up units and bring them back through his personal magnetism. This represents the gradual and cumulative dispatch to him over the duration of the Turn of reinforcements. The Convoys are limited in range as a practical means of keeping the Turkish fleet out of the Baltic and other such historic anomalies.

Q. EARLY WINTER: What is the reasoning behind a nation being able to spend their treasury to influence the weather? (i.e. Playing a resource point to try and bring about an early winter) Just wondering where the historical logic is on this one. Weather altering Gypsies working on commission?
A. All designs have a certain amount of abstraction in their mechanics ... even immensely detailed ones like ASL. Certainly, TNW is no exception. The entire Interphase, Redeployment and Regroup concepts are Fast Forward mechanisms designed to make the game play quickly through mundane chores to get you to the good stuff without the tedium of keeping track of logistics. The name was inspired by being the opposite of Extended Campaign in effect. But it should have been called Truce or Diplomatic Initiative. The important thing is what it does - providing a counter to the heretofore "perfect" and boring strategy of simply running an opponent out of cards and carving him up at will. Early Winter allows you to take a calculated gamble that you can end the Turn before an enemy with overwhelming strength rolls up your entire country while you have no mobility with which to combat it. Timing is everything in this game. It also allows someone who is currently in the lead to gamble on ending the Turn and the game while he is still in the lead - symbolizing a diplomatic victory in the peace process which he hopes to win with a good Peace die roll (5.8).

Q. EVENTS: Can we have more event cards?
A. Creating them is not a problem. We had many we tearfully cut at one time or another. Diluting the deck and changing the % chance of major cards being drawn is another matter altogether. If enough people want them, GMT might be talked into making such an expansion deck but that is a business decision only they can make.

Q. FOREIGN WARS: Why aren't the Turks penalized for a continuing Foreign War involvement the way the Russians and British are by having to commit additional troops?
A. The Ottoman Empire was vast - encompassing far more territory than shown on our map. Its provincial rulers were often kings unto themselves, with large provincial forces and even feudal levies. The Russo-Turkish wars were fought in the Caucasus, the Anglo-Russian wars in the Eastern Med, Egypt and the Levant (although the Brits did sail into the straits to try to bombard Constantinople). The Turks fought these wars with regional forces, keeping their main army close to home to protect the throne and European possessions - and to keep the Sultan in power. The Russians had troops along the borders with Turkey, but had to send top generals (Kutuzov, Bagration and Tormassov all fought the Turks during this period) and veteran European troops to the frontier to keep them in check. The British had to scrape together units and divert ships from the Med squadron and even the Home Fleet to deal with the Turks. So Britain and Russia are fighting Turkish forces already in existence, off-map in those wars which is why the Turks you see in the game do not have to commit extra troops to them also.

Q. 15.21 FORMER ALLIES REGROUP: Why must former Allies Regroup out of a fallen country?
A. Conquest occurs in the Interphase. All kinds of "fast forward mechanisms" that speed play are taken care of at this time. The vanquished nation has failed to escape the outcome of the conquer die roll. Being conquered means she has sued for peace, which means her leader does not want former allied troops eating his people's crops, taking their horses, fighting battles on his land, requisitioning his villages for shelter, etc. He has accepted the position that his nation would now benefit most from peace. His former allies know he has been defeated and have left because they are no longer supported by his infrastructure. Instead of gaining supplies willingly from the populace with the aid of local garrisons, he has to take them by force with his own troops and fight local garrisons. This doesn't take any stretch of the imagination. All you have to assume is that the peace treaty stipulates that if former allies enter this conquered country, it will join its conqueror's camp to repel them. Assuming such a peaceful withdrawal every time may well be an over-simplification, but "simple" IS the key word here. As for changing the rules to allow former allies to remain in a conquered nation and to move through it to fight enemies, consider this: As a conquered player, having my conqueror's forces in my nation puts me at a disadvantage with the conqueror if I decide to rejoin the Camp fighting against my conqueror. This is at it should be and this is how it works. But if we were to now say that anyone's forces who are fighting my conqueror can also be in my nation, then suddenly I'm at a disadvantage with them, too. What if I had wanted to join my conqueror's camp? Now I'm at a disadvantage because these former allies are potentially scattered throughout my country. That's not what we want. That's why we only allow former allies to fight my conqueror in territory I ceded to my conqueror. They can't be in my territory without a Declaration of War.

Q. SWITCHING CAMPS: I would think that switching Camps would be at least as hard as trying to influence the end of the war by burning a card, and should cost as much (5.8).
A. At least two members of the design team agree with you and feel that the published version makes switching Camps too easy and leads to far too much of that kind of nonsense by players who feel less constrained by history than the lure of immediate easy keys. That's the main (but not the only) reason why they prefer the two- and three-player versions of the game where Switching Camps is not a factor. To each their own ...

Q. GUERRE DE COURSE: Why aren't there any rules for this in the rulebook? Why would you ever play this instead of 6 CPs?
A. Because IMO they are easier to find on the Battleground Chart than buried among the rules. We managed to keep all event rules out of the rulebook save for a seldom used one (Russian Winter). Contrary to popular opinion, the French navy did not die at Trafalgar. In fact, the French navy did more harm to the Coalition AFTER Trafalgar than before. And that is not just my opinion - most of CS Forester, Patrick OBrien and Alexander Kent's series take place after Trafalgar - and their war is anything but easy. Trafalgar is to the Napoleonic era what the sinking of the Bismarck is to WWII. It ended the threat of a Franco-Spanish battlefleet taking control of The Channel and allowing the invasion of Britain. It did not end the French navy (although it did a real number on the Spanish). For the rest of the war the French sent out raiders (like Uboats of a century later) - hence the GDC card. These sunk over 2,800 merchant ships and nearly brought the British Empire to bankruptcy. And for that I can cite the previous volume of Sir Charles Oman I just read about the 1811-1812 campaigns. They stretched the Royal Navy and its manpower so thin that the British had to impress seamen (and we all know where that got them). The French also made sure that everybody with a boat got paid to go sink, harass or at least tie down the British. Everybody from Venice and the Turks to the Bey of Algiers, American privateers and the sultans of the Spice Islands put to sea. It got so bad, the East India Company started painting the sides of their merchantmen with phony gun ports and mounting phony guns.... and eventually resorted to real guns and a convoy system. The French actually won several small naval actions which, while not directly threatening the Sceptered Isle itself, further strained the Royal Navy and the Exchequer. Thus we have the GDC, which when played in combination with Bey of Algiers, Spithead & the Nore, several wars, Letters of Marque, etc can often stretch the Brits so far that they can't ever get control of the seas... and that means no Rule Brittania bonus, no "Continental System Fails" and, perhaps even worse, no easy highway across the water to land armies on the fringes. Invading Britain is not often a good idea, but you ignore the possibility at your peril and "Guerre de Course" often precedes such a plan.

Q. INTERPHASE SOP: Why does the Interphase begin with "change camps" and not with "conduct attrition and adjust keys"?
A. Attrition and conquest need to be conducted before the end of turn die roll, and only when you know the answer to that do the actions in the Interphase need to take place. Do you really want to have to go through an Interphase to see whether the game ended with the Peace die roll of the preceding Turn?

Q. NAPOLEON ABDICATES: Why isn't this card playable in the fifth turn to create a new 6th 1815 turn?
A. Mostly because of our concerns about shortening the playing time. But this is an excellent House Rule for those who don't mind the possibility of a 6-turn game and its accompanying length. So, feel free to recreate your own Campaign of the 100 days, thus: When played on the final turn, a new 1815 Turn is added to the game. Napoleon returns as a free reinforcement during the next Interphase and is available at the start of the next Turn.

Q. 15.41 NEGOTIATIONS: Why the limit on table talk?
A. The rules clearly state you can not bargain on terms of submission when you make an offer. You make an offer and it is accepted or rejected. There is of course nothing to prevent two players from talking to each other on the side while another player takes his Impulse and coming up with an acceptable offer BEFORE it is placed on the table for the yes-no decision. There are a lot of things you can do diplomatically to sweeten a submission offer:
* agree to give up specific Duchies (enforceable).
* agree that the submitting country's minor will not attack the victor. This is unenforceable, of course, as the minor is still technically hostile to the victor, but the controlling player could offer to keep his minor's troops out of harms way. This is not enforceable but is something to think about to sweeten the pot.
* agree to the play of certain cards in a certain manner. Again, not enforceable, and you cannot SHOW anyone your cards, but you can tell them what you have - whether they believe you or not is a matter of your credibility - past, present and future.
* agree to join the camp of the victor and what role you will play as his new best friend (unenforceable, of course).
* agree to burn or not burn (i.e., play a card as a Response event rather than as an Impulse requirement) a card to end the Turn earlier or to prolong the game (again, unenforceable).
There is a lot of room for diplomatic maneuver. Such discussions, however, should take place in a manner and time that does not slow down the game for others. The joy of multiplayer games is interaction, horsetrading, threatening and discussion... but the bane of these is when this goes on without end, or without the participation of all at the table. It is hard to get away from the table to talk, as you need to be present to react with cards or intercept/evade or roll dice. Most groups are used to this kind of talk and will put a limit on it of their own liking. But engaging in this kind of thing while the action stops means the game will play much longer and be much less interesting for those not involved in the discussions. For tournament purposes, the rule reads that such discussions cannot slow the game at all.

NOBODY WINS: No one has asked this one yet but I thought I'd beat you to the punch. Assume all players play to a 0 or +1 VP tie or , the leader(s) have a single VP. If a Neutral Proxy has played The Emperor Commands for a +1 Key advantage it would either win outright or win the resulting tie - as it is further down the Movement Track order than any player. Sort of fitting when you think about it ... while war wages all around them and is fought to a standstill, the winner is the neutral played by the game itself that stays out of the war. Rather unlikely as such real estate would have a high value with lots of willing developers, but amusing nonetheless. Unfortunately, the rules lawyers will point out that 5.81 refers to "players" gaining VPs, so the game can't win.

Q. PLAYING TIP: I'm having trouble keeping track of CPs (and Maneuvers) expended what with all the interruptions for responses, evasions, etc.
A. Place a die on the played card and turn it face up to show the number of pips expended as you execute its action. Only discard the card when your Impulse is over. And whatever you do, don't roll dice on the map!

Q. POWERS (4.3): In the three-player version of the game, why can't Austria be controlled by the British Player instead of the Russian Player? Seems to me it would work out better gamewise and historically. Austria & Britain were Napoleon's two greatest foes throughout and they never went to war on each other. Other than providing a 15,000 man corps to basically do nothing in South Russia in 1812 they never really helped Napoleon either as an active member of the Imperial Camp. Is there some mechanical or play balance reason why the three-Player version can't be Austria/Britain vs. Russia vs. France?
A. For starters, you might have a problem finding anyone willing to play Russia. Under your proposal, the French player starts with 11 cards (including Spain's), the Austria-Britain player gets 11, and Russia gets 4. Any takers for Russia out there? Just as importantly, play of Russia and Austria is very dependent on their co-operation. Allowing the same player to control both, greatly improves Austria's chances of survival. Be that as it may, people's perceptions vary greatly. Our choices were based on hundreds of test games. If you feel strongly about this or any other rule in TNW, feel free to experiment your way. Just don't expect to easily convince others to play your way outside of your immediate group.

14.2 REINFORCEMENT CPs: For what its worth, the errata pertaining to 14.2 merely restores the game to the way we tested it and the way we intended it to play. The wording in the published version was inadvertent and caused by the confusion of the final hectic days of getting this project to press. The game can be played as published, and with more than a little historical justification, but in our opinion, will result in a far less interesting game with diplomatic status dominating play in the first two turns far more than it should and consequently depriving the game of some of its most interesting fluid situations in the early going. Diplomatic Track buys in the Interphase should be limited to those purchased with excess cards (14.33).

Q. SPAIN: How can you duplicate the Spanish Campaign of 1808, etc?
A. You can duplicate what happened in Spain, but no game should force anyone to make that kind of mistake or reproduce that bizarre series of events. Here is how it could happen.
1. The Spanish take horrendous losses at land and sea, as they did historically, and are thus of marginal use to France.
2. The Coalition plays Dos de Mayo or another diplomatic event to break the Franco-Spanish alliance.
3. France decides it is not worth spending nine CPs to bring back Spain as its Proxy for a lousy one VP in return.
4. So now, either:
(a) The Coalition spends more CPs to bring Spain into their Camp on the Diplomatic Track, which provokes a French invasion, or
(b) The French decide to invade Spain to grab some cheap VP's - either by just taking some Keys, thus gaining points and making Spain a liability to the Coalition (the Coalition Camp player who takes Spain gets a VP for it as a Pact ally and its cards and forces, but could actually be in the red from a total VP perspective because he is responsible for all Spanish Keys), or
(c) The French decide to invade Spain to conquer it outright ...thus getting a resource (which they can hold as VPs) and at least one Key (another VP with the possibility of more, based on their conquest die roll).
So, you can have a situation very similar to what happened in 1808. Of course, it can again go horribly wrong, as the British now have a safe place to land on the continent and a minor ally to help them. You pays your money, you takes your chances....

Q. SUDDEN DEATH/PEACE: Our group doesn't like the possibility of the game ending after one turn so we ignore the Peace rule on Turn 1.
A. A group that makes a house rule about there being a minimum two Turns to the game is of course welcome to do so. Doing that, however, greatly changes the dynamic of the game:
* 1. it removes the urgency and immediacy and pressure of having to try for a win from the start
* 2. it lets players sit back and build instead of fight - thus increasing the chance of stagnant, sitzkriegs.
* 3. it encourages playing for the long-term win, and the grabbing or invading of minors to set up a better Hand for the next Turn.
* 4. it changes the balance of the game - the best chance the French have of winning is to win early.
* 5. it slows the game, as people are playing for the next Turn, not the current one - and lengthens the game. When somebody gets off to a terrible start, it is not comforting to know that he is committed to a long night of suffering. Better to rack 'em up and start another game.
* 6. it skews the whole mechanism about burning a card - if France is winning on Turn 1, usually somebody in the Coalition will burn a card to make sure the French can't win or that France can't win by upping the roll through burning a card of their own. This gambling aspect is not just a game mechanism, it is a game within a game, and a balancing act. It also symbolizes that Europe has been fighting for nearly 20 years and there are a lot of pressures - political and economic for peace. If you burn a card FOR peace, you are actually supporting peace movements, politicians, newspapers and other interests seeking to end the war. If you burn a card against peace, you are committing political assets to fight those same politicians, and are probably sending troops into the streets against demonstrators .... all of which costs.
* 7. the Peace roll is a 1 in 6 chance of a game end which means it is a 5 in 6 chance the game will continue. Those odds can be increased or decreased, and for players who really want to, they can ensure it is decreased to a seven which means the game cannot end that Turn - but at a cost.
Knowing this, if your group wants a House Rule that makes it a minimum two- or three- or whatever-turn game, that is your option. Your game, your house, your rules. As long as everyone is on board with this, enjoy it. Just don't do it without at least trying the game the way it was designed a few times and don't expect it to be played that way outside your circle of friends.

*** A possible House Rule with some merit for those who like to keep playing a set amount of time: Continue the Peace Roll mechanism every turn and allow the game winner to "bank" the VPs he leads by when the game "ends". Then continue the game. The final winner is the player with the most VPs at the end of a five-turn game. This allows even a French player who has been conquered to win the game. Or, simpler yet, award the "winner" of each Turn a Resource for his efforts ... this could be either for winning the Peace roll or simply for ending the Turn in the lead (or tied for the lead in the case of the lower denizens of the Movement Track Order).

SUDDEN DEATH: I've noted a tendency to not officially finish the game. One player will have a notable lead on keys, but its only in that players interest to see the game end. As a result, the game end die roll will be opposed by one or two cards, and the game will sort of peter out. While I realize Europe Exhausted, etc. modifies this, was there consideration given to more pressure to the game ending? Perhaps the Europe Exhausted effect could be a permanent modifier? Or, was the intention to see a weight toward the full five turns? I guess our German-style game players are having issues with "players exhausted."
A. Indeed, the game originally ended on a Peace die roll less than or equal to the Turn Number. Many testers however expressed unhappiness with the game ending after only a turn or two (see above for such an example) so we softened the rule effect to the published version. If your group prefers shorter games, as do I, you could well adopt a similar House Rule by simply adding +1 to the Peace Die Roll for every turn played after Turn 1 or making the effects of Europe Exhausted permanent once drawn. The latter still requires that it be drawn however to shorten the game.

Q. TIME SCALE: It is impossible to get results that match the historical campaign because the players do not have enough cards in their hands to simulate two years of war. Just take the first turn: Historically the Prussians declared war vs the French in 1806, which is the middle of the first turn. If they do this, they have to pay 7 CPs between the 2nd and 4th rounds (they have only four cards), and that will happen while the French are still battling the Austrians. Try to simulate the 1806 campaign after that. It is impossible, not enough cards to make the moves. I suggest people try playing with one turn equaling one year.
A. Like most statements made in absolute terms instead of expressed in terms of likelihood, this one is absolutely wrong. The 1806 Campaign, as well as every other historical result, can indeed occur. Is it likely? No. But it is possible. The game is, above all, a game. It is not a recreation of history that forces you down a predetermined sequence of events. If the cards oblige and your opponent has the same blinders as his historical counterpart, those things can happen. Keep in mind that it is possible for any nation, including Prussia, to get numerous additional cards in a turn. I have seen the smallest nations gain preemption status and enjoy protracted turns. Also, what you are thinking of as a conquest situation was historically a case of submission. It is possible, though unlikely, to gain such submission in a single impulse.
Moreover, TNW has been designed and developed to be both a tense and reasonably fast play. Your proposal will make the game far too long and deny the sense of always having more things to do than commands to do them with. Your way will allow you to move more pieces. but that is not necessarily either more realistic or more fun. It is more likely the extra cards will be used to build forces and help develop a sitzkrieg standoff rather than the war of maneuver which usually occurs in the first turn.

Q. UNIT MOVEMENT: Why can four Units without leadership move a space for one CP when it costs two CPs to move three Units (9.1)?
A. The game was designed for use with Miniatures pieces rather than counters. It still plays better that way since it alleviates stacking problems. From that starting point, the game evolved in many ways. At one point, you could not move leaderless Units at all. When we gave such Units their own movement capability in recognition of the inherent leadership at this level, the game played much better. However, leadership at this level was not such that co-ordinated movements were very likely without an Army command structure and we felt that such movement had to be made less efficient than the same movement directed by a leader (thereby an Army). We felt the simplest way to do this was to penalize the inadvertent 3- or 5-Unit leaderless group. You don't notice the difference with just one or two Units, but sooner or later fate will leave you in a situation with a 3-Unit garrison whose evasion and movement possibilities just got a whole lot less efficient. The decision to evade is much easier to make with one leaderless Unit than with three. We enjoyed the subtlety and the distinction. Without this rule, you are probably better off in many situations buying two Units rather than a 1-4 leader. We felt it important to reinforce the importance of the lesser leaders. Carrying this treatment of "Units as change" a step further, you might well ask why you couldn't move the 8-Unit piece by itself for a single CP without a leader. The answer to that one becomes rather obvious - to the point of why bother having leaders at all? So, at what command level do you draw the line where inherent leadership cannot co-ordinate the movement of large bodies of troops without an Army structure? We chose to do it at three Units. In retrospect, the prohibition against movement without leadership probably should also have extended to the 4-strength cannon pieces. But we chose the simpler solution of marrying the limit to the "one piece" criteria - a decision that doesn't look so good in light of the late addition of the 6- and 8-strength stacking pieces. Consequently, a recommended House Rule would be to require leadership to move any piece over two Units in strength.This rule change was seriously considered for Version 1.1 of the living rules and rejected only after major debate.